Antioxidants are compounds in the body that prevent oxidation. The process of oxidation is a chemical reaction that produce free radicals. In addition to the reducing the likelihood of free radicals, various antioxidants protect and improve the skin in a multitude of ways.
Phthalates are a salt of phthalic acid used as a solvent in cosmetics. Phthalates have the potential to act as an endocrine disruptor, which interferes with the production of hormones.
Parabens are chemical compounds derived from an acid called para-hydroxybenzoic acid (PHBA). The acid is characterized as a white crystalline solid. PHBA can occur naturally in fruits and vegetables like, blueberries, carrots, cherries, cucumbers, and onions.
Also known as nicotinamide, niacinamide is a water soluable form of vitamin B3 . Niacinamide is made in the body from excess amounts of niacin, another form of vitamin B3.